Download our Free RPG Day 2017 offering – a 13th Age/TimeWatch double adventure!

Download the adventure PDF here

13th Age – Swords Against Owlbears

Where do Owlbears come from? A wizard did it.

Still does it, in fact. Her name is the Maker of Many. Her experiments push the boundaries of life and death, of madness and reason, of art and hideous biological abomination – and the player characters are trapped in her dungeon, the Twisting Gardens.

Swords Against Owlbears is a quick-start adventure for 13th Age, the d20 fantasy game of battle, treasure and epic story telling. Grab a pregenerated 6th character, decide your One Unique Thing, and get ready to fight for your life!

TimeWatch – Font of Knowledge

Time-traveling saboteurs just snuffed out all human life with – Comic Sans? You’re a member of TimeWatch, an elite organization of time cops who keep history safe. Find out what happened, track clues forwards and backwards in time, and save true history from those who try to erase it – like the hyperintelligent AI BREEN, which has distributed itself throughout time. Good luck, Agent. Everyone – and we mean everyone – is counting on you.

This scenario for up to six players is an introduction to TimeWatch – the GUMSHOE game of investigative time travel. Pregenerated Agents and handouts are included to launch the players into the mystery.

While the PDF has been updated, there were some errors with the printed Free RPG Day book. You can download the 13th Age errata for the print book here, and download the TimeWatch errata here.

Stock #: PEL13AT01
Author: Gareth Ryder-Hanrahan, Kevin Kulp
Artist: Rich Longmore, Gillian Pearce Pages: 48-page PDF

 

home-page-timewatch

by Daniel Fidelman

Surprisingly enough, one of the most epic and memorable battles I had a chance to run, was a battle of wits and historical knowledge. On one side sat about fifteen kids, classified as gifted and aged ten to twelve, armed only with an internet connection and the best spends that their TimeWatch character sheet could offer. Their characters were standing at the great hall of the palace in Khanbaliq, the early predecessor to modern Beijing, and their opponents were the various members of the great Khan’s court. It was a formal reception, where the courtiers tried to assess the new arrivals, supposedly ambassadors from distant lands, yet unsullied by the Mongol conquest, but actually – Agents of the TimeWatch.

But perhaps some cultural context may help here. Surprisingly enough, there are few hundreds of Israeli role-players that work as either full-time or part-time Tabletop RPG Gamemasters for elementary school kids. Those activities are almost always paid by the parents, as RPGs are widely considered to be an educational tool developing teamwork, self-expression and imagination, and take place in various schools and day-care centres.

For better and for worse, this model has some implications for our playing culture. The advantages of this phenomena include the instant recognisability of Role Playing Games in most middle-class settings and the general benevolent attitude of the society to such games, as well as a certain pool from where future adult role-players are drawn (The numbers are hard to get due the fierce competition between the companies involved, but I would estimate that at least 5,000 Israeli kids are playing a Fantasy d20 Roleplaying game on a weekly basis with a professional Gamemaster).

The widespread criticism, at the other hand, is that such a monetization of Gamemastering sometimes encourages the creation of huge player groups – in extreme cases containing as many as twenty players per one Gamemaster, but often ranging from eight to twelve. Consequently, managing and entertaining such is group is a task that requires high performative and group management skills from the Gamemasters, that in turn may accustom potential young role-players to see role-playing as a service offered to their parents by trained professionals rather than a sustainable adult hobby they can try for themselves. It also may accustom them to a very simplistic version of roleplaying, where personal quests and initiatives are nearly unmanageable and where roleplaying scenes depend mainly on the theatrical skills of the Gamemaster. That factor, together with the game sessions being only ninety minutes long – lends itself to a huge reliance on battles, and violent solutions in general.

Thus, young players in such organized settings are often considered combat oriented and bloodthirsty to the extreme, tending to bypass role-playing and plan-making to get to the part which gives them the most amount of agency – rolling dice in order to kill monsters. I believe that the TimeWatch game mentioned here provided me with some insight towards fixing that problem.

So, info dumps aside, we are now flashing back to the recent past. It was the summer of 2015, and I was sent by my manager at the Cortex company to provide six roleplaying courses for a few weeks long summer camp for gifted children. Usually I try to avoid running games for more than twelve kids, but the format of the camp demanded me to accommodate groups of 15-20.

After submitting descriptions for the Harry Potter and the Hobbit games, as well as a GMing 101 course and a Nilfgaard military academy LARP for the older kids, I’ve stopped to consider my one remaining slot on the schedule. “You are a history teacher. Why wouldn’t you run a history game?” asked Shacked, my manager “We are supposed to be educational, after all”.

The Jurassic Editon of TimeWatch has just landed on my Hard Drive few weeks before, so the decision was made, and I’ve submitted “TimeWatch in the Court of Kublai Khan” for the summer camp’s program.

“TimeWatch recruits people from all over the history. Who do you want to be?”

Character generation is not a procedure you can easily perform with fifteen kids, most of them are unfamiliar with points distribution systems. So, in the purpose of this mission I’ve created six pre-made versions of the character sheet, using Character Competencies as the basis – The players picked their choice between Analysts, Diplomats, Gadgeteers, Marksmen, Spies and Officers, then distributed few more points between the General abilities and picked a couple of investigative ones. Investigative abilities were binary – you either had it or hadn’t, while the abilities you had allowed you to make investigative spends at their behalf, A system close enough to that presented at Gumshoe One-2-One.

Then came the personalization part. “Now tell me where have you came from exactly”, I’ve asked them. “What have you done in your career before getting picked up by the Watch?”

Some kids had an immediate answer. Others seemed lost. Incidentally, we were situated in a computer class, and I decided to use it. “You can turn the computers on and use the Internet. Write me a short biography of your character. He would get cool powers based on the quantity and quality of the knowledge you would gather”.

This kind of personalized, almost system agnostic phase of character creation took about half an hour. The pupils worked on the computers while I checked their work, directed them to interesting persons and concepts, and distributed cherries per their choices, either drawing from my memories of those mentioned in the TimeWatch or the Night’s Black Agent books, or making up some appropriate ones by myself, in consultation with the kids.

Kid: “Can I be an ancient Greek gadgeteer?”

Me: “Sure thing, google up Archimedes. You can be an apprentice of him”

Kid: “What can I get then?”

Me: “It depends. What kind of work have you did for him”?

Kid: [Reads Wikipedia article] “The Heat Ray sound really neat”

Me: “Well, the you have a set of hand mirrors and lenses, that allows you to set things on fire from afar given some time”.

Another kid, that managed to acquire much more Mongol lore than I’ve thought possible in twenty minutes on the Hebrew version of Wikipedia said that he wants to be a Prince of a razed city in Rus, secretly bent on revenge.

“Well,” I said “then you have probably researched the Mongol tactics and culture very well during your TimeWatch period, so you have a dedicated Academic ability for that.”

Most of the rest of that first session spent planning. Their mission was to infiltrate the court to find what have mobilized the great Mongol march that destroyed Europe in early 14th century and they needed a good cover story for about fifteen new people showing up at Khanbaliq. I’ve divided them to groups of four, gave each group the map of the Mongol empire and gave ten minutes to think about cover stories, then vote.

Quickly enough, they decided to be a delegation from a faraway country, ambassadors bearing gifts of respect and submission to the great overlord. Then they spent the next few minutes arguing which country should they represent, and just when I was about to put it to a simple majority vote, an eleven years old girl intervened:

“We should come as three different delegation, from three different countries. We should pretend we do not know each other, thus allowing us to make different allies among the opposing factions at the court”

Wow, that’s so crazy and brilliant, I’ve thought, let’s totally go for it.

Then an opposition raised: “But why should three previously unknown delegations arrive at the same day? That would be really suspicious”

He had a point too, but I really liked the first idea, so I’ve decided to quell the dissent: “Usually you are right, but today this is a gathering for the Naadam festival, so there are a lot of new folks around here”

Thus, it has come to pass, that the delegation from Java, Ophir and Ireland entered magnificent Khanbaliq in very much the same hour.

Enter the Matrix

That much was originally planned. Beside my work as a Gamemaster, I am an active educator and work to professionally combine those activities. So far, the activity was a classic operation of Education by Roleplaying as I understand it. The following part, on the other hand, was pretty much improvised, and in a very Gumshoe way, as I understand the term.

I had ten more minutes left to the end of the class, and decided to end on an upbeat note. Thus, after using Authority on some guards to get an audience, and witnessing some rough Mongolian justice delivered, the delegation finally found themselves before the solemn eyes of the Khagan.

Me: “He is looking at you with a keen interest. Now it’s the time to properly present yourself, and the gifts” – Then I point at the boy sitting to the right – “You should begin, what gift have you brought for him? You can make anything up. The resources of TimeWatch are unlimited”

“A really big Diamond” he says.

“The Khan is visibly impressed, he reaches his hand, and his Heshig bodyguard takes the diamond from your hand and places it in his”

Then, wishing to show the impact his action made, I drew a vertical line on the whiteboard. “After the last execution for theft, you have caught the Khan in a rather foul mood. A – 10 mood. Your diamond raised his mood by five points. Let’s raise it to – 5”

The entire class cheered, and I’ve explained the implications, making them up as I spoke. “Right now, the Khan is quite inclined to threw all of you from the city. If you shall raise his mood to a 10, he shall allow you to stay. If you should get him to a 15, you would get an invitation to stay in the palace, if it would be 20 – you would also get a personal guide to the palace – a high ranking courtier of your choice. Each of you have a one point to say, a one gift to deliver, a one chance to make a first impression”.

Then I’ve landed the treacherous blow.

“A man rises from the cushions beneath the throne. Although drabbed in Mongol cloak, he is clearly European.

Ireland, you say? I’ve heard of Ireland. An island so poor and forlorn, that even the pathetic English can accomplish holding it under their thumb. Where from, I would wonder, can the Irish get such diamonds? My liege, I assure you that this man is lying. He can be from no Ireland. But he surely can be a spy

The Khan’s face darkens. He sets the diamond back to the Heshigi’s hands.

Is it true, he asks, or can you say defend yourself versus the allegations of our loyal son Marco?”

The I reached once more for the whiteboard and set the Khan’s attitude to a -12, before adding another parameter: Marco Polo = -15.

I stared at the kid, and asked, in the off-character, helpful moderator voice: “So, do you have something to answer?”. He looked unsure and I’ve added. “You do have History (Past) as an investigative ability. You can probably spend a point to find some fact that can help you”

He did, so I gave him some geography facts. “You know, Ireland is located at the western edge of the world. Colombus is not yet born, so who knows what kind of wonders may the Irish fishermen find sometimes behind the horizon. They sure have a load of legends about it. Also, there are real diamonds in Africa, supposedly where the Ophirian delegation are from”.

He used the American lead immediately, spinning a tale a land of wonders and riches that the Irish has found recently and exploiting to the fullest.

The Khagan’s attitude rose to – 2, while Marco’s plunged to -22, Since as they were about to discover shortly, his Overt Motivation was to “Ensure that he is the best and most interesting source of stories about the Westlands”. Than a tall, yet unnamed Mongolian raised to ask the Irish delegation about the methods they use to produce such diamonds and I’ve added a new Dramatic Person to the growing complexity of the whiteboard – “Treasurer. Attitude: +6. Overt Motivation: A Keen newly found interest in the assumed riches of the west”

End of class. Dismissed. If you want, you can research stuff at home.

They did, and the next session was a grand-bataille. Each investigative spend served to give them some potentially relevant ammunition of social understanding and historical knowledge. Each remark, each gift, each question served to unveil yet another aspect of the Mongolian court, change the attitude of most participating NPCs to each of the two delegations involved, to create new enemies and new allies. Each word had a weight of its own, a chain of implications clearly visible at the whiteboard.

The Crusader Kings grand strategy game surely served as one inspiration for the social web that emerged on the whiteboard, together with the point based attitude system (Which may have been also influenced by Bioware type CRPGs). The investigative spends helped this web of intrigue become real, sustentative and mechanically related to the characters, a part of the crunch, the gamey part of the RPG, rather than the fluff you need to bypass to get to the action.

What happened here was a complete opposite. I had some fights planned later in this scenario, and was clearly surprised when all of them were cunningly bypassed by the players, that used the Overt and Covert motivations discovered by their social spends to surround themselves with a thick armor of temporary allies. The whiteboard web had officially become the board on which the game was played, a tactical map to be explored and changed by the players, and I’ve discovered that when people’s attitudes toward their characters were stated in front of the players, it seemed they are trying to avoid offending anyone, including the real baddies (A rogue prince of the Genghis dynasty, some Hashishin and a bunch of Sophosaurs).

Around here, the common perception is that early role-players, especially in a paid entertainment based role-playing environment, would usually choose the way of more violence, preferring to hack and slash their way through various plot devices and holders of information. What I’ve learned from my Kublai Khan experience is that maybe, what kids are really looking for is a meaningful engagement with mechanics. When their character sheets are full with damage dealing abilities and the mechanic representations of the fiction they encounter would usually be monster statistics, they would rightfully assume that the game is about dealing damage. If, at the other hand, the mechanical representations are dealing with meaningful knowledge and human relationships, they can engage learning, planning and roleplaying with about the same gusto. The Gumshoe way of putting information pieces in the mechanic core of the game serves to promote engagement with, and manipulation of, knowledge.

The version of TimeWatch that I used in educational settings (after Kublai Khan I had a French Revolution and a Galileo’s Trial scenarios) was much less zany than TimeWatch as presented. I’ve found that my aspiration to show a historical situation, limited the kinds of crazy stuff that may influence it. But it needn’t be the case in your game. Maybe you would like to go further than me and immediately show on whiteboard the temporal implications of every major player action, without the need to go forth in time to check it. This open sharing of information may indeed harm some sense of mystery and surprise and thus immersion, but at the other hand can serve to emphasize themes and stakes. And what emphasizes better the sheer epic scale of a time travel plot than to see possible futures flower and whither with your every step.

TimeWatch designer Kevin Kulp has traveled into the future where he’s already completed the TimeWatch Game Master’s Screen and Resource Book, and brought it back for your use and enjoyment! He probably did not catastrophically disrupt history in the process!
The TimeWatch GM’s Screen is three-ply and portrait-oriented, with all-new art on one side by TimeWatch artist Rich Longmore and enhanced by 13th Age artist Lee Moyer. On the other side is the essential information and tables a GM needs to run a TimeWatch game.
The Resource Book includes advice, guidance and rules for:

  • Making combat in TimeWatch even more fun
  • Pre-made Rebel organizations to bedevil or ally with your time-traveling Agents
  • 16 new time seeds for near-instant missions, organized by the Adversaries and Antagonists that each mission seed uses. If you read the Adversaries in the main book and thought, “that sounds fun but how would I use it?”, you’ll like this section.
  • Protect the secrets of the future, present and past until the time comes to reveal them

gm_revision

Take your time, don’t waste it!

 

Stock #: PELGTW06 Authors: Kevin Kulp with Conan French, Jim Groves, Michael Rees and Jason Morningstar
Artist: Rich Longmore and Lee Moyer Pages: Screen and 40-page saddlestiched book

Price: $19.95

Buy now

“Some curiosity may be felt as to his history; I will trace it with the utmost truthfulness, according to his own words, adding any necessary explanations. He told me that he was eighty-eight years of age when he came here, and that he was the son of Prince Ragoczy of Transylvania by his first wife, a Tékéli.”  

— Prinz Karl von Hessen-Kassel, Memoirs (1817)

Proud if neglectful papa, Ferenc II Ragoczy

The perhaps-too-gullible Prince Karl wrote these words about my friend and yours, the quondam immortal alchemist, composer, and confidence man who called himself the Comte de Saint-Germain. He also called himself, among a dizzying array of other pseudonyms, the Count Ragoczy (or occasionally Czarogy, for a change-up) and claimed to be the vanished heir to the throne of Transylvania, Prince Leopold Georg Ragoczy. The last reigning Prince of Transylvania, Ferenc II Ragoczy, had three sons before his ill-fated rebellion against Austria collapsed in 1708. The eldest, Leopold Georg, died in 1700. Or did he?

The Esoterrorists: I AM = EOD

Yes, of course he did. But the psychic dislocation of the Transylvanians, betrayed by their Christian brothers and their Turkish enemies, deprived of their proper Prince by the duplicitous Emperor, left a seed of doubt. By the 18th century, Esoterror groups had run the “Lost Heir Working” many times, sparking false hope, civil war, and repression that fed the Outer Dark. The Esoterror agent known as Saint-Germain decided to play a bigger game: he would run a “Quantum Heir Working” both claiming and denying his identity to spread chaos and ruin across Europe. Indeed, he was in Russia during the 1762 revolt that put Catherine the Great on the throne; his machinations at Versailles (and the Illuminist sects he left behind) toppled the Bourbons in 1789, leading to a quarter century of global war. The founder of American fascism, William Dudley Pelley, venerated him as a Secret Master … and so he was. Modern-day OV agents track a cache of Saint-Germain’s suddenly discovered letters from Budapest murder-auction to Paris musical conjuration site to Montana cult compound, unwittingly re-linking and re-awakening his 18th-century apparat to once more bring flame and tyranny to the West.

Night’s Black Agents: Sharper Than A Serpent’s Tooth

No, Saint-Germain wasn’t a vampire. But Prince Leopold Georg was, from birth. (Saint-Germain, who never ate or drank in company, and never seemed to age, was a Renfield.) The Prince’s mother, Prince Karl foggily recalled, was “a Tékéli.” The Conspiracy cover story pretends this refers to the noble Thököli family of Hungary, from whence actually descended the Prince’s grandmother. But no, Saint-Germain actually said “Székely,” the term Dracula uses in the novel for his own Hungarian forebears. The Linea Dracula split in the 16th century, when Count John Dracula allied himself with the Bathory clan. Internecine warfare decimated the vampire ranks until Count John finally won in 1683. Diehard secret foes of Count John made a deal with the Bathorys’ great rivals for the throne of Transylvania, the Ragoczys. Ferenc II gave his blood and other humours to a Székely assign, who magically and alchemically conceived a vampiric moonchild. This may explain the entry in Ferenc’s diary on his son’s passing: “I confess my affliction at his death was not of the slightest.” John Dracula’s influence at the Imperial court explains why Ferenc was never imperially confirmed as Prince of Transylvania, and perhaps why his rebellion was so thoroughly crushed. But the Empire never found Ferenc’s true vampiric heir, who worked against the Hapsburgs in the shadows and perhaps engineered their fall in 1918. This by now 320-year-old vampire commands great magics as well as the Theosophical cult of Saint-Germain in Europe, India, and America, giving orders to his subordinates telepathically or while in mist form, to avoid being identified as an Un-Dead four-year-old. The returned Dracula hunts this lost heir to his vampiric throne, blood of his blood, Leopold Georg the Last of Transylvania.

Trail of Cthulhu: The Mahatmas of Madness

Prince Karl all too accurately recalled Saint-Germain’s words. His mother was a “Tékéli” — something fearful and primordial from the antarctic reaches of the Earth. (Saint-Germain in 1779 also puckishly described his mother’s country as one which had never been ruled by “men of a foreign origin.”)  How she arrived in Vienna in 1691 we may never know: brought on board a Dutch brigantine blown off course south of Cape Horn, perhaps. Saint-Germain finally died in 1784, at the age of ninety, still appearing as a fifty-year-old man. Madame Blavatsky claimed that “The Master Rakoczy” was one of the Hidden Mahatmas or Secret Masters or the Great White Brotherhood — and the cry “tekeli-li” is associated by Poe with the fear of white things. Are the Himalayan White Masters who spawned Saint-Germain the hideous Mi-Go, or gnophkeh worshippers of Ithaqua in Leng? Does the Brotherhood of the Yellow Sign hunt Saint-Germain or his Mother, or seek the secret of immortality hidden in his alien blood? Did Saint-Germain transmigrate his consciousness into a new body, like Ephraim Waite? Did Edward Hutchinson steal his essential saltes from the crypt of St. Nicolas’ church in Eckernforde and resurrect him in “Castle Ferenczy” in Transylvania? Is Saint-Germain’s Mother, like Grendel’s, still lurking somewhere, gravid with a new Secret Master? Send the Investigators to the ruins of Castle Ferenczy in Rakus to dig up some clues, dodge some Romanian Iron Guard sorcerors, and follow the Trail of Saint-Germain wherever it leads.

TimeWatch: The Saint-Germain Variations

Dodgy mystics or occult weirdos really want to find out the truth behind Saint-Germain, and one of them, Elsa Bailly, gets ahold of a time machine. Fearing the Master’s magic, she heads for 1700 Transylvania to kidnap Saint-Germain as a baby — unwittingly spawning the legend of the Lost Heir that Saint-Germain later plays upon to credulous audiences. Is his “magic” just sleight-of-time and paradox? Does he play coy about his past because he grew up outside time, where he learned to grow diamonds and jam with Handel? Are the various Saint-Germain impostors his enemies or his alternate selves? Did Elsa steal the infant Saint-Germain — or an Outer Dark tulpa, or a vampire, or a shoggoth-spawn? This looks like a job — like a lot of jobs — for TimeWatch.

men-in-blackBy Kevin Kulp

The baby had been born three hours ago, healthy and beautiful, and now it was asleep in its mother’s arms.

The three men pushed open her bedroom door, stood there in the doorway, blocking the gaslight from the hall. All three wore identical black suits. Their skin was sallow, almost gray, their jaws were square, and when they spoke through fake-looking teeth it was in a dull monotone. “You have created new life,” one said to the new mother.

The second spoke. “It grows up to act contrary to our desires.”

“Look at it,” said the third. “Memorize its features. You will have less exceptional babies that will not depart. You will not remember this one alive, not when awake. Time is about to change.”

And it did.

By the time the mother started screaming, the three men were nowhere to be seen.

Servants of a False God

In the investigative space opera GUMSHOE game Ashen Stars by Robin D. Laws, one of the playable races is the vas mal. This race of psychic, grey-skinned, large-headed aliens used to be called the vas kra. They were mysterious psychic consciousnesses that spanned the stars, evolved beyond the need for flesh, playing with worlds on a whim and guiding mortal creatures’ development when they so chose. All that changed when the Mohilar War began and the vas kra were de-evolved into a loathsome, frail physical form named the vas mal.

One of the interesting throwaway lines in Ashen Stars is that at least one vas mal has directly interfered with Earth’s development over millennia, playing the role of the devil and possibly pretending to be divine in other religious and supernatural roles as well. That leads to an interesting question. What would Earth be like if the vas kra never intervened at all, and what (if anything) are they shaping our history towards?

At least one vas kra (and not one with humanity’s best interests in mind) has decided to interfere directly with humanity’s history. It does so by creating physical servants when and where they’re needed, using them to alter time and historical events. Their process is slow, but they’re patiently playing a very long game, even if no one but they know what the winning condition is. Challenging their actions can be as dangerous as challenging the servants of a God itself.

Enter La Kreitaj

The most common servants of the vas kra call themselves “La Kreitaj,” which is Esperanto for “The Created.” They often impersonate divine servants – and from their point of view, perhaps they aren’t pretending. La Kreitaj are typically tall men and women who wear black, with sickly skin and unnaturally perfect teeth. They often wear sunglasses to hide their pure black eyes. They speak in monotones, show no fear (it’s thought they can’t comprehend it), and can’t technically be killed; a La Kreitaj whose mortal form is slain forms an identical form somewhere nearby within 30 seconds, although their original corpse remains. La Kreitaj who are slaughtered multiple times leave multiple corpses, possibly confusing law enforcement to happen on the scene after the fight in complete.

La Kreitaj typically carry out their duties with their Rewrite Time power, allowing them to change the past in fairly minor ways while standing in the present. It makes their actions particularly difficult to pin down during a TimeWatch investigation. No one knows why they primarily speak Esperanto. That’s either a joke from the vas kra who forms them, or a clue to a secret no one has yet deciphered.

La Kreitaj Stats

Defense: Hit Threshold 4, Health 8

Offense: Scuffling +2, Shooting +2; Damage Modifier +0 (iron-hard fists), +2 (futuristic beam weapon), Stun 5 plus Destabilize (Rewrite Time – see below)

Abilities: Tempus 15

Special Abilities: Clock Out (cost 2, no time machine needed), Exile (cost 2), Regenerate (cost 0; an identical La Kreitaj appears somewhere nearby within 30 seconds, with full Health and Tempus), Technology (cost 2)

Special: La Kreitaj have a unique ability known as Rewrite Time (cost 3) that they prefer to use over physically injuring a target. A successful weaponless hit with Scuffling or Shooting (Close Range) allows them to change something small in the target’s past, triggering a Stun 5 test as well as a D4/L4 Paradox test. They will typically use this to weaken a target before using Exile to banish it into the distant past and remove it from the relevant time stream.

All La Kreitaj have identical DNA and fingerprints – even when they differ in appearance, sex and personality.

Using La Kreitaj

In the same way that many TV shows have a “monster of the week” interposed against longer-running secrets that last an entire season, La Kreitaj and the goals of the vas kra that backs them make for an excellent multi-session mystery. They typically act in the background, making small and unimportant alterations in the timeline that add up to a momentous change at some point in the future. They resent interference and will act to remove it, although they’re reluctant to kill anyone who isn’t one of their targets.

It’s unknown what goals La Kreitaj have, and what the GM chooses is affected by whether they wish to fold the far-future timeline of Ashen Stars into the TimeWatch timeline. Goals might include:

  • Turning humanity into a vast army to be used by the vas kra against an enemy
  • Ensuring that humanity never join the Galactic Combine (or ensuring that they do)
  • Taking actions that affect whether the Mohilar war ever occurs
  • Prepping humanity for ultimate peace and global consciousness (which might involve the removal of free will)
  • Using humanity as a vast biological computer to answer a philosophical question
  • Raising a psychic food source to later be plundered
  • Focusing all of history to create a single, uniquely talented individual
  • The pure egocentric joy of manipulating an entire species
  • Dismantling (or even creating) TimeWatch

It’s possible for GMs to have La Kreitaj in play without initially deciding on what the vas kra’s true goal is; perhaps it really is ineffable, and the Agents only clash with La Kreitaj when they act against TimeWatch interests. Use this antagonist as a mysterious foil to complicate other mysteries and missions, and let them develop slowly as background threats. With their abilities, there’s no telling who or what they’ve affected.

The TimeWatch Roleplaying Game pre-order is still on—but the war for this reality has ended.

Evil Pelgrane, our mirror-universe doppelgangers from an alternate timeline, invaded our timeline and wreaked havoc: hijacking our Twitter accounts, delivering bad GUMSHOE advice, and stealing precious items from other RPG settings. You joined the fight, casting your votes for Good Pelgrane or Evil Pelgrane. The result: evil wins!

timewatch-poll-good-vs-evil

Because Evil Pelgrane won the voting, the TimeWatch Resource Book will include a Time Crime heist, raiding a Spanish treasure ship.

After winning the war, Evil Pelgrane moved on to wreak mayhem elsewhere. Good riddance! We did rather like their version of our logo, however; so we removed its evil goatee and glaring eyes, and will be using it from now on. Behold the new Pelgrane Press logo:

Pelgrane Press logo

Thanks to everyone who joined the battle! We’re fine with the outcome, to be honest. The Time Crime heist will be tremendously fun, and we’re relieved that Evil Pelgrane is gone, never to be seen again…

EVIL-CAT-SIMON

 

Evil Pelgrane Logo - WhiteGUMSHOE is the rules engine used in many of Evil Pelgrane’s products, from The Esoterrorists to Trail of Cthulhu to our newest (evil) release, Timewatch. (GUMSHOE is capitalised because it’s an acronym  – Generic Universal Mechanic Serving Henchmen Of Evil Why else would it be all-caps?).

It’s 10 years old this year, so let’s take the time to review the basics of Evil GUMSHOE.

If you want to take the advanced class, that’ll be $129.99, peons. And it doesn’t even come in a black cube.

NOTE: Pelgrane Press are happy and enthusiastic backers of the Invisible Sun Kickstarter, and are engaging in a bit of friendly teasing. Evil Gar’s opinions are evil, and are not shared by Good Pelgrane.

EVIL GUMSHOE FOR PLAYERS

Or, how to ruin your own fun.

USE YOUR INVESTIGATIVE ABILITIES!

Right there on your sheet, you’ve got a long long list of methods for gathering information. Use them all! All at once! All the time! I mean, the rules clearly say that if you use the right ability in the right place at the right time, you’ll always get the clue, no rolling. So, obviously, the right place is HERE and the right time is NOW and the right ability is ALL OF THEM.

 

Good Example of Play

GM: Ok, you time-travel back to the professor’s lab on the night before the explosion. It’s deathly quiet except for the occasional bleep from one of the instruments. The professor’s prototype time machine is still sitting there on the desk, hooked up to various monitoring devices. From the bluey science glow, you guess it’s already powered up and running, but hasn’t been activated yet.

Player 1: Can I tell anything more about the machine with my Science! ability?

GM: Are you touching it, or scanning it with your tether, or just looking at it.

Player 1: We know this thing is going to explode soon, so I’m being as careful as possible.

GM: OK, it’ll take you a few minutes to work out what it’s doing.

Player 2: Can I get the Professor’s emails?

GM: Do you have Hacking?

Player 2: Yep. I sit down at his computer and start using exploits that haven’t been discovered yet to get through his security systems.

GM: Do you want to spend a point to get it done faster?
Player 2: Nope.

GM: Ok, as you’re both distracted by your respective tasks, you don’t notice the presence of the night watchman until he’s right in the corridor outside. He’s about to come through the door – what do you do?

Player 3: I’ll disguise myself as one of the professor’s lab assistants and use my Authority ability to convince him we’re allowed to be in here.

 

Evil Example of Play

GM: Ok, you time-travel back to the professor –

PLAYERS (Overlapping): Anthropology! Charm! Architecture! Military Tactics! Streetwise! Medical Expertise!

GM: You’re using Charm on…

PLAYER 1: EVERYTHING!

 

GET CLUES BUT DON’T FOLLOW THEM

In fact, go in the opposite direction. Run away from those leads! Investigation only leads to fun, and Evil GUMSHOE isn’t about fun – it’s about torturing your GM and the other players.

 

Good Example of Play

GM: One of the professor’s emails is from a woman named Sybil. She wants to meet him at a café near the university – tonight, in about ten minutes. And attached to the email is a photograph of a weird symbol painted on what looks like the wall of a basement.

PLAYER 1: Ok, let’s go to the café and see what’s going on there.

PLAYER 2: Actually, I’m going to spend a point of Anthropology to blend in – I’m travelling back five years in time and getting a job in that café. I figure by now, I’m running the place and I’ve set up really good security and surveillance there.

 

Evil Example of Play:

GM: One of the professor’s emails is from a woman named Sybil. She wants to meet him at a café near the university – tonight, in about ten minutes. And attached to the email is a photograph of a weird symbol painted on what looks like the wall of a basement.

PLAYER 1: Ok, let’s ignore this obvious lead and obsess about something obviously irrelevant.

PLAYER 2: That night watchman had a moustache, right? WAS HE TIME TRAVELLING HITLER?
GM: No, he just –

PLAYER 2: FALSEHOOD DETECTION!

GM: That only works on NPCs!

PLAYER 2: TRUE. I go to Berlin anyway.

 

EVIL GUMSHOE FOR GMS

GUMSHOE’s core thesis is that the challenge of an investigative game shouldn’t be getting the clues, it should be deciding how to act on them. Evil GUMSHOE’s core thesis is that life is suffering and you can’t spell “frustration” without “fun” (and “tsr ratio”, apparently). So, as an evil GUMSHOE GM, your watchwords are:

LOVE MY NARRATIVE RAILROAD

If the players always get the clue, and the clue leads to the next scene, then you can just dispense with all that tiresome roleplaying and decision-making on the part of the players, and focus on what really matters – your unpublished novel. The players have two very important tasks – they need to use their investigative abilities to find clues, and they need to sit there while you explain what the clue means and how it fits into the story.

Good Example of Play

GM: Ok, you used Hacking to get into the professor’s computer and you’ve found that email from ‘Sybil’ talking about a meet in the coffee shop. What are you doing?

PLAYER 1: Let’s go and spy on them there.

PLAYER 2: One moment – that symbol. Do I know anything about it with any of my Histories? I’ve got Past, Contemporary and Future.

GM: It’s not from any of those, but you do recognise it from the Timewatch archives. There’s a parallel history where Earth gets invaded by aliens in the 1950s, and that symbol was used by the human resistance to mark the homes of collaborators. You know that the change point for that timeline was Roswell, in 1947 – a Timewatch team disabled the distress beacon on the Roswell saucer, so the alien mothership never came looking for it.

PLAYER 2: So, if someone wanted to change history back again, then Roswell 1947 would be the place to go?

GM: Yep.

PLAYER 3: I’m going to ask that night watchman if he knows this ‘Sybil.’

GM: He doesn’t recognise the name, but he does mutter about the car parked across the road from the lab. There are two people out there, and he’s convinced they’re watching the university. He describes them as sinister government-types. Men in black.

Look at that! Three possible leads for the players to follow. That’s far too much work. Railroads are much easier!

 

Evil Example of Play

GM: Ok, you used Hacking to get into the professor’s computer and you’ve found that email from ‘Sybil’ talking about a meet in the coffee shop. You go to the coffee shop, and you see the professor talking to the woman. Who has Spying?

PLAYER 1: I do.

GM: You sneak close enough to eavesdrop, and the woman’s saying that she knows the professor escaped from another timeline with alien time-travel technology stolen from Roswell and now you must go back to Roswell in 1947.

PLAYER 2: Can I talk to Sybil and –

GM: NOW YOU MUST GO BACK TO ROSWELL. LOOK AT MY SCENE DIAGRAM! IT CLEARLY SAYS THAT THE ROSWELL SCENE COMES IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE CAFÉ SCENE.

 

DEMAND THE RIGHT ABILITY!

GUMSHOE games have lots of highly specialised investigative abilities, allowing the players to interrogate the world in many different ways. When writing a scenario, note which clues can be found with which investigative ability, and stick rigidly to that note. Never relent, and never reward ingenuity on the part of the players.

Also, make sure you hide your clues in really obscure, non-intuitive places using inappropriate abilities. That’s always fun.

Good Example of Play

GM: Ok, you’re in Roswell air force base, disguised as military police. How are you going to find the flying saucer debris?

PLAYER 1: I could just order a soldier to tell me with Authority, right?

PLAYER 2: It’s probably top-secret. I’ll go to the base office and use Bureaucracy to find out where the restricted areas are.

PLAYER 3: It’s all probably been documented in history books – can I just check with Research or Contemporary History to find out which hangar contains the ‘weather balloon’?

GM: They’ll all work, although Research will take a few minutes. Which one are you using?

Bad Example of Play

GM: Ok, you’re in Roswell air force base, disguised as military police. How are you going to find the flying saucer debris?

PLAYER 1: I could just order a soldier to tell me with Authority, right?

GM: He doesn’t know.

PLAYER 2: It’s probably top-secret. I’ll go to the base office and use Bureaucracy to find out where the restricted areas are.

GM: They don’t tell you.

PLAYER 3: It’s all probably been documented in history books – can I just check with Research or Contemporary History to find out which hangar contains the ‘weather balloon’?

GM: No. It’s not in any of the books you check.

PLAYER 1: Ok… can I scan with Science for radiation emissions or –

GM: You don’t detect anything.

Two hours later.

PLAYER 2: Sigh. Ok. ANTHROPOLOGY! ARCHITECTURE! MILITARY TACTICS! CHARM!

GM: You can’t just shout out investigative abilities! You have to describe how you’re using them.

PLAYER 2: Ok, Military Tactics – I know how air forces bases work. If I was dragging in debris from a crashed object, which would be the obvious hangar to use.

GM: You can’t tell.

PLAYER 3: Can I find any tracks with, uh, Notice? Like, fresh tyre-tracks on the road from the ranch where it crashed.

GM: No.

PLAYER 3: Can I find any tracks on that road with Outdoor Survival?

GM: Yes! They clearly point at Hanger 3.

Don’t just make it a railroad – make it a painfully delayed and overcrowded railroad with a nightmarish ticketing system! That’s the Evil Pelgrane way!

There’s more bad GUMSHOE advice on twitter (look for #evilpelgrane), and we’ll happily give you personalised bad advice in the comments on this article, too!

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TimeWatch is a time-travel adventure RPG where brave agents of TimeWatch defend the timestream from radioactive cockroaches, psychic velociraptors, and human meddlers. Go back in time to help yourself in a fight, thwart your foes by targeting their ancestors, or gain a vital clue by checking out a scroll from the Library of Alexandria. But watch out for paradoxes that may erase you from existence… or worse.. Purchase TimeWatch in print and PDF at the Pelgrane Shop.

Evil Pelgrane Logo - WhiteThe TimeWatch Roleplaying Game is now available to pre-order! But this happy occasion is threatened, as sinister forces from a dark timeline launch an attack on our reality. TimeWatch needs brave recruits to help defend it!

Vote in the survey below to strike a blow for either side. But remember: your vote has the power to change our future, by altering an upcoming TimeWatch RPG release – the GM Screen and Resource Book!

A Shocking Foe

We are locked in a life or death struggle against…ourselves. Our enemy is Evil Pelgrane.

These vile miscreants hail from an alternate timeline in which the entire run of the TimeWatch RPG was washed overboard during shipping. This catastrophe sent Simon and Cat over the edge into bottomless rage and nihilism, and Pelgrane Press became the most evil games company in the world. Now, the ruthless* Evil Pelgrane works to undermine our timeline and ensure that their terrifying future comes to pass!

You can spot our mirror universe doppelgangers by their jet-black goatees and bizarre behavior. If you see Simon smashing sastumas with a hammer, Cat pouring coffee down the sink while disparaging LARPing, Kevin disparaging barbecue or complaining about his dog allergy, or Wade making the dark arts of spin even darker, you are very likely in the presence of an Evil Pelgranista.

(They also tag their Tweets with #evilpelgrane, which is rather less than cunning.)

EVIL-CAT-SIMON

Choose Your Side

If Good Pelgrane gets the most votes, the upcoming TimeWatch GM’s Resource Book will include an adventure seed and illustration featuring TimeWatch members battling robot pirates

If Evil Pelgrane wins the most votes, the Resource Book will include a Time Crime heist, raiding a Spanish treasure ship

The war will rage (and pre-orders last) until September 21st, when the survey closes. Join the battle to determine whether Pelgrane Press or their counterparts at Evil Pelgrane prevail!

Which version of Pelgrane Press do you support?

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*Technically not ruthless, because they have an Evil Ruth.

TombThe streets here are a concrete labyrinth. I try to go one block east, towards the ocean, and find myself crossing another bridge over the grey waters of the Miskatonic, and I’m back on the north side of the city, climbing up towards the civic monstrosity that squats atop Sentinel Hill. Transport Police, their faces hidden by gas masks – to protect against “typhoid”, according to the peeling posters in the subway – watch me as I march past. I don’t dare ask them for directions, and I can’t go back underground. I have to stay on the streets, even if I get lost again. Maybe if I find higher ground, a vantage point… a doorman ushers me in, making a familiar sign with his left hand as he does so, but too late I realise that the building I’ve entered is one of the cryptic and terrible windowless skyscrapers that loom over the city, their tops lost in the oppressive, low-hanging clouds. I cannot go back – I have to climb, struggling up flights of stairs that are clearly not made for any human frame…

Why, I am writing Cthulhu City, now that you mention it. Or rewriting, in parts, as the book has its own ideas about what it wants to be. A sandbox, maybe, where the Pillared City of Irem was lost long ago.

* * *

At Gen Con, I ran two prewritten scenarios: Kevin Kulp’s Valkyrie Gambit for Timewatch, and Ruth Tillman’s Midnight Sub Rosa, which can be found in Out of the Woods. In both games, I screwed up and misread key elements of the scenario (protip: running a game on the day after those Ennie Awards is never going to go smoothly). In both games, though, I was able to recover from my error and keep the game on track. Neither group noticed that anything was amiss.

Confusion & Conflation

In Midnight Sub Rosa, I conflated two locations. There’s one house where the main action of the adventure takes place, and there’s a guesthouse where most of the assembled non-player characters are staying. In my haste, I missed the guesthouse and assumed that everyone was staying in the same place. If I’d noticed my error in time, I’d have simply corrected the players, but a good fifteen minutes of play elapsed between me describing the building, and me realising there was supposed to be a whole separate guesthouse down the road from the country house, and rewinding play kills momentum in a convention game. I had to get ahead of the derailed train while it was moving.  (if you notice a mistake just as you make it, you can correct yourself – “oh, no, wait, they’re not staying here, there’s a guesthouse down the road” – but that’s a very narrow window. Once you’ve spent five minutes in-character complaining about the cramped rooms in the main house, that opportunity’s gone.)

Removing the guesthouse introduced two problems. First, it made it harder for the player characters to sneak around and investigate the various bedrooms. In a six-person con game, though, that problem solved itself: some player characters distracted the NPCs while the others committed a little breaking and entering. The second issue was a bigger one. Midway through the scenario as written, there’s supposed to be a ghoul attack on one of the NPCs as he walks down the isolated tree-shrouded laneway between the main house and the guesthouse. By moving his bedroom into the main house, I’d removed the opportunity for the ghouls to ambush him, and I couldn’t have the ghouls attack the main house midway through the scenario.

The ghoul attack scene is in the scenario to be a sudden visceral shock and to eliminate a particular NPC. It doesn’t need to happen on that laneway. So, I invented a reason for the NPC to leave the safety of the house. I described him as a smoker, and then later had one of the other characters complain about the smoke. Soon, a player character suggested that he and the NPC step outside for some fresh air where they could smoke in peace. They wandered into the gardens… and the ghouls were lurking in the trees nearby.

If the location of the ghoul attack scene was important, then I’d have had to come up with some other solution, but here all I needed to do was eviscerate one particular occult expert. Once I’d done that, and given the players a fright, the game was back on track despite my screw-up about the guest house. The key is to know the purpose of every scene, even if you have to change the setting or content.

The Case of the Missing Villain

In Valkyrie Gambit, I forgot to introduce the villain of the whole adventure. The villain’s supposed to show up in the opening scene, setting up a dramatic reveal at the end. (“It was you all along! Shock! Horror!”), but the players and I were having such fun brawling with mutant cockroaches that I ended the scene without bringing the villain onstage. I could have added another scene where the villain pops in, but it would have stuck out like a strange growth on the scenario’s spine. The shape of the story in a roleplaying game isn’t discernible when you’re in the middle of play; it’s only seen in retrospect, when the players look back and see the sequence of events from beginning to end. In a convention game, where you’ve got limited time and only a handful of scenes, I couldn’t get away with adding a new scene to add a new NPC – it would make the game feel unsatisfying at the end, even if the players didn’t notice in the heat of play, because it would have robbed that opening scene of its purpose. Pointless scenes are always rotten, even if they’re fun in the moment. (There’s a tension between the game that the players are experiencing right now, and the story that they’ll remember and tell afterwards. You can have a really fun, action-packed game, and then discover when you look back on it that nothing actually happened, that it was just running around and rolling dice without any consequence. You can have a perfectly structured compelling story that’s boring and frustrating to actually play through. For a good convention session, both the game and the story need to sing.)

It’s always better to call back and reuse material in a convention game. If the players introduce a concept in scene 1, then try to bring that into a later scene, even if you have to force things a little. In 13th Age games, for example, I’ll happily twist myself into knots trying to work in all the players’ One Unique Things, because it’s more fun for them to have contributed something that actually plays a part in how the story plays out. In Valkyrie Gambit, one of the players decided to play with the Timewatch rules by having his future self show up to help out in that initial fight. That gave me a justification for my replacement villain – it was a time-shifted duplicate of one of the mutant cockroaches, breaking the laws of time by skipping out in the middle of that first fight.

Using the time-shifted cockroach as the villain was the most parsimonious solution – it incorporated two existing elements (cockroaches, and the fact that time travellers can duplicate themselves), so it gave a sense of unity to the whole game when the player characters met the cockroach again in the final scene. It tied everything together. Look for ways to link back to earlier events and ideas, or to echo them.

Distraction With Shiny Clues

Another common landmine – which I gracefully leapt over this year, unlike the steps at the back of the Embassy Suites – is the logical contradiction, where you accidentally say something that breaks the logic of the mystery. You describe, say, an NPC closely examining a weird statue, even though it’s supposed to be locked away in a glass case. In that situation, look for a way to correct the mistake that involves the player characters finding out more information through active use of their Investigative Abilities. You could, for instance, describe the museum porter come back in with the glass case, complaining about how he has to clean it every few weeks because a strange black mold keeps growing on the inside, giving the player character with Biology a chance to whip out her microscope, look at some mold samples and discover that they’re very similar to a toxic mold found in certain Egyptian pyramids or somesuch (the clue doesn’t have to be relevant; it’s there purely to give the players a little reward so they don’t notice the plot bandage you just slapped on.)

Convention games are a particularly manic high-wire act for the GM when they go awry – as everything has to fit into one three or four-hour slot, you’ve got to find a solution to problems in time for that big finale. Always keep your nerve – if you screw up, keep going instead of backtracking. Prewritten scenarios are just suggested routes, they’re maps of what might happen, not strict scripts that you’ve got to follow. If you go off course, keep going and look for another turning to get back on track. Do it right, and the players will never suspect a thing.

Parallel Universe ImposterBy Kevin Kulp

Independent, self-reliant TimeWatch troubleshooter teams are generally given discretion to execute, imprison, punish, mind-wipe or even recruit the chronal miscreants whose schemes they thwart. Sometimes the difficult decision of what to do with a prisoner resolves itself; certain alien species such as the parasitic Europans or roach-like Ezeru receive a “destroy on sight” designation. When the enemy is human or a more sympathetic race, however, the decision becomes more challenging.

Memory Modification

The simplest solution is usually the best. If a miscreant can have their memory altered and return to their normal life, that’s often the best solution for all concerned. The challenge is that memory modification can change what people remember, but it can’t change a person’s base nature. If they’re intrinsically evil, dissatisfied, and intelligent enough to discover time travel a second time, this might not be an effective resolution. If the criminal only acted out of opportunity (such as finding and stealing another person’s anachronistic time device before committing a crime of passion), simply erasing their memory of the event might be all that’s needed.

Time Exile

When you want someone accessible after the fact, but don’t want them mucking around the time stream, you exile them in time. This most commonly occurs by dropping prisoners on isolated prehistoric tropical islands. The goal is to find a location where a prisoner can easily survive, but where they’ll never be accidentally found (easier when humanity hasn’t evolved yet!) and where they won’t develop enough technology or tools to escape. Even if they do get off the island, it’s believed that one person with no technology can do very little damage to the historical timestream in a prehistoric era.

For particularly dangerous prisoners who are given this treatment, geosynchronous spy satellites and high-flying drones might be used to keep an eye on the prisoner.

It’s not unheard of for time exile to occur in locations that are less pleasant than a tropical isle. While against regulations, more than one prisoner has been abandoned in the age of the dinosaurs. A few of these have managed to survive and thrive, but so far none have altered history enough to have their power removed.

Prisoners might also be placed in traditional prisons, squirreled away in a back corner of the Bastille, Alcatraz, Devil’s Island, or the Tower of London. They live out their lives futilely trying to convince the guards around them that they’re from a different time. They’re seldom successful.

The Floating Mountain

TimeWatch maintains a prison back in the “Boring Billion,” that period of Earth’s early history when geological upheaval ceased for a billion years and the Earth was covered with vast mats of biological sludge. The Floating Mountain is a levitating fortress that hovers over the bacterial mats, a traditional prison with no access to time travel and nowhere for escaping prisoners to flee to. It’s used for violent offenders who need to be controlled, and whom TimeWatch doesn’t feel comfortable inflicting on a prison parallel.

The Citadel

The Citadel is TimeWatch’s headquarters, located in the quantum anomaly that precedes both time and the Big Bang. A real advantage to time traveling is that at least a few agents have seen Loki’s plan in The Avengers movie, so very few if any prisoners are kept imprisoned at the Citadel. It’s just not worth the risk. Em-gram brainprints of enemies are occasionally brought in and catalogued, however; on one occasion one of these was imprinted on a new clone, resulting in a brief but deadly manhunt through the Citadel’s many halls. The practice has since been disallowed.

Prison Parallels

One option available to every team is to banish a prisoner to a prison parallel, a distant parallel timeline that is easy to time travel into but very, very difficult to leave. There are dozens of these, generally discovered because agents and probes who have ventured there have not yet found their way home. Exile to a prison parallel is chosen when the prisoner is too dangerous to risk any chance of escape, but when executing them is cruel or unwarranted.

Mechanically, a prisoner can be exiled to a prison parallel by one agent spending a Timecraft point. This allows them to hack their autochron and transport a prisoner without the autochron itself remaining behind. Once in a prison parallel, a prisoner is free and unfettered to make her way about the world –but it would take a time machine and an expenditure of at least 9 Timecraft and Science! points, all from one person at one time, to escape. That’s theoretically possible from one person who grows to great power over an extraordinary amount of time, but no one has managed it yet.

A prison parallel is as alien or earthlike as the GM wishes. It may be a virtual paradise or a brutal and dangerous hellscape; its one constant quality is that once someone time travels in, they’re probably not leaving. An agent has no way to determine the qualities of a given prison parallel before they exile a prisoner to it. For better or worse, there are three prison parallels that TimeWatch primarily uses for banishment.

Chronal scientists theorize that our own timeline may act the same way for creatures originating in other distant timestreams. If so, TimeWatch may find themselves dealing with a pseudo-human warlord with significant technological and personal prowess, who is literally unable to travel in time to return home.

 

 

 

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